Brampton Accountant: 2015 Income Tax Checklist

Brampton Accountant: 2015 Income Tax Checklist

Brampton Accountant: 2015 Income Tax Checklist. Cheema CPA Professional Corporation is a Chartered Professional Accountant firm located in Brampton, Ontario. We provide professional tax and accounting services. Each year we put together a checklist to help our clients assemble all the information required for personal taxes. This checklist will help you get more organized and help us minimize your taxes. To download: Tax Checklist.

General Items

  • A copy of last year’s return
  • 2009 Notice of Assessment
  • Other years reassessments
  • Details of changes to your personal status such as dates of marriage, separation, divorce or widowed, births and deaths
  • Note consenting to provide your income tax information to Elections Canada
  • Installment payments
  • Details of foreign property holdings (if any*) including cost of property held


  • Universal child care benefit (RC62)
  • Employment income (T4)
  • Pension income (T4A, T4A(P), T4RIF, T4RSP)
  • US social security
  • Old age security (T4OAS)
  • Investment income (T5)
  • Income from trusts such as mutual fund investments (T3)
  • Income from employment insurance (T4E)
  • Income from partnerships (T5013)
  • Workers compensation/social assistance payments (T5007)
  • Details of the sale of securities such as stocks and bonds (eg. trading summary from your broker)
  • Income from foreign investments
  • Spousal support payments received

Deductions General

  • RRSP contributions
  • Medical, dental, prescription drugs, nursing home expenses
  • Payments to a private health insurance plan
  • Charitable donations
  • Tuition fees/education amount (T2202A) for yourself or transferred from a dependent such as a child or grandchild
  • Interest paid on student loans c Professional dues, union dues c Public transit passes
  • Childrens participation in programs related to physical activity
  • Interest on loans assumed to purchase investments
  • Safety deposit box fees
  • Professional consultant fees
  • Legal fees paid to establish child or spousal support or to enforce a pre-existing agreement
  • Legal fees paid to recover wages from your employer
  • Details of people you support and their medical status
  • Child care receipts (for camp, list dates attended)
  • Moving expenses if you moved 40km or closer to work or school
  • Property taxes or residential rent paid and to whom
  • Political contributions receipts
  • Disability tax credit claim form completed by authorized health practitioner (T2201)
  • Spousal support payments paid
  • Adoption expenses

Deductions Employees

  • Declaration of conditions of employment form (T2200)
  • Details of expenses not reimbursed by your employer including travel expenses (eg. parking, taxis, bus fare), supplies and assistant salaries
  • Office rent if required as a condition of employment
  • Home office expenses if it is your principal workplace or used exclusively, on
  • a regular or continuous basis for activities such as business-related meetings; include details of rent paid, repairs and maintenance costs, utilities and if you are
  • a commissioned salesperson also property taxes and home insurance. Also indicate the total area of your home and the area used for your work-space
  • If you are a commissioned sales-person, details supporting advertising expenses, promotion, meals and entertainment
  • Motor vehicle expenses

Deductions Motor Vehicles

  • Total kilometers driven and kilometers driven just for work
  • Details of total expenses incurred for gas, maintenance and repairs, insurance, license and registration, loan interest and lease payments
  • New vehicle, purchase invoice/agreement

Unincorporated Businesses

  • Total sales revenue for the year
  • Total expenses listed by category for the year
  • Capital assets acquired (eg. computers and peripherals, furniture and equipment)
  • Home office expenses include details of rent paid or if you own your home, details of repairs and maintenance, utilities, property taxes, insurance, mortgage interest
  • Motor vehicle expenses

Unincorporated Businesses

  • Total sales revenue for the year
  • Total expenses listed by category for the year
  • Capital assets acquired (eg. computers and peripherals, furniture and equipment)
  • Home office expenses include details of rent paid or if you own your home, details of repairs and maintenance, utilities, property taxes, insurance, mortgage interest
  • Motor vehicle expenses

Download (PDF, 30KB)




How to setup a corporation in Canada?

How to setup a corporation in Canada?

How to setup a corporation in Canada?

 How to setup a corporation in Canada?

A corporation is a separate legal entity which can be incorporated at the federal or provincial levels. A corporation is separate from its shareholders and must file a tax return annually regardless of the revenues it makes. A shareholder of the corporation is not liable for debts of the corporation. Although a corporation can be named in a lawsuit, the shareholders have limited liability to the capital contributed to the corporation.

What is a Federal (Canadian) incorporation? 
Federal incorporation will allow you to operate and open branches all across Canada with the same name. The corporate name is recognized all over Canada. A Federal corporation is required to file a annual return every year as long as the corporation remains active. You will also have to register in the province you decide to operate in.

What is an Ontario (Provincial) incorporation?
Ontario or provincial incorporation will only allow you to have a branch in Ontario. If you decide to open a branch in another provide you will be required to incorporate there as well (the same name might not be available). With an Ontario corporation you are still able to sell your products across Canada.

How is a corporation taxed? 

The income earned in the corporation is taxed at the corporate rate. The funds left over after paying taxes are considered retained earnings of the corporation. The retained earnings are distributed to the shareholders through dividends and are then taxed in the shareholders’ hands at their respective marginal tax rate.

What is the corporate tax rate in Ontario/Canada?
The corporate tax rate depends on the type of corporation setup and which tax credits it qualifies for. A corporation earning Active Business Income, which qualifies for the Small Business Deduction of 17%, will typically have a combined Federal & Provincial rate of 15.5%. The provincial rate is 4.5% and the federal rate is 11%.

Small-business   tax rate General corporate tax rate M&P Corporate   tax rate
General Corporate Tax Rate 38.00% 38.00% 38.00%
Federal abatement -10.00% -10.00% -10.00%
28.00% 28.00% 28.00%
Small-business deduction -17.00% 0.00% 0.00%
General tax rate reduction 0.00% -13.00% 0.00%
M&P deduction 0.00% 0.00% -13.00%
Federal Tax Rate 11.00% 15.00% 15.00%
Provincial Tax Rate (Ontario) 4.50% 11.50% 10.00%
Total Tax Rate 15.50% 26.50% 25.00%

 What are the setup costs?

The setup costs can range from $500 to $5,000 depending on the tax structure and legal advice needed. The basic costs are around as follows:

  • Government of Ontario incorporation fee for filing the articles electronically – $300
  • NUANS name search (for name corporations only) – $75
  • Service provider fee – $50
  • Form 1 initial return online filing fee – $50

Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) Requirements 

When to file corporate taxes?
All corporations have to file a corporation tax (T2) return every tax year even if there is notax payable. If you are a CCPC the payment is due 90 days after the corporate year end and filing is due 180 days from the year end.

CRA Business Number
The CRA will open a business number for your corporation. The CRA will request that one of the owners or directors provide a social insurance number and major business activity. 

GST/HST Number
You will be required to open a HST number if your revenues are going to be above $30,000 or you plan on collecting HST on the goods or services you provide. You also have the option to voluntary register for a HST number from the beginning. It is critical that you review the CRA’s GST/HST Guide to stay in compliance of the regulations.

This CRA tool can determine if you Should register for a GST/HST account?

Payroll Number
You have to register for a payroll account before the first remittance due date. Your first remittance due date is the 15th day of the month following the month in which you began withholding deductions from your employee’s pay.



2016 CPP & EI rates

2016 CPP & EI RAtes

2016 CPP & EI RAtes

Payroll Canadian Pension Plan (CPP) and Employment insurance (EI) rates for Employees and Employers.

Once an employee reaches the maximum CPP/EI in a relative year, additional CPP or EI should not be deducted. In the event extra CPP or EI has been deducted in error you will have to apply to get it back. As an employee the extra CPP or EI contributed will be repaid back through your personal taxes. As an employer you will have to apply to get it back using the PD24 form, the form can be downloaded from our Forms Section.

Federal EI premium rates and maximums

Year Maximum annual
insurable earnings
Rate (%) Maximum annual
employee premium
Maximum annual
employer premium
2016 $50,800 1.88 $955.04 $1,337.06
2015 $49,500 1.88 $930.60 $1,302.84
2014 $48,600 1.88 $913.68 $1,279.15
2013 $47,400 1.88 $891.12 $1,247.57
2012 $45,900 1.83 $839.97 $1,175.96
2011 $44,200 1.78 $786.76 $1,101.46
2010 $43,200 1.73 $747.36 $1,046.30
2009 $42,300 1.73 $731.79 $1,024.51
2008 $41,100 1.73 $711.03 $995.44
2007 $40,000 1.80 $720.00 $1,008.00
2006 $39,000 1.87 $729.30 $1,021.02
2005 $39,000 1.95 $760.50 $1,064.70
2004 $39,000 1.98 $772.20 $1,081.08
2003 $39,000 2.10 $819.00 $1,146.60
2002 $39,000 2.20 $858.00 $1,201.20
2001 $39,000 2.25 $877.50 $1,228.50
2000 $39,000 2.40 $936.00 $1,310.49
1999 $39,000 2.55 $994.50 $1,392.30
1998 $39,000 2.70 $1,053.00 $1,474.20
1997 $39,000 2.90 $1,131.00 $1,583.40

CPP contribution rates, maximums and exemptions

Year Max. annual pensionable earnings Basic exemption Maximum contributory earnings Employee contribution rate (%) Max. annual employee contribution Max. annualself-employed contribution
2016 $54,900 $3,500 $51,400 4.95 $2,544.30 $5,088.60
2015 $53,600 $3,500 $50,100 4.95 $2,479.95 $4,959.90
2014 $52,500 $3,500 $49,000 4.95 $2,425.50 $4,851.00
2013 $51,100 $3,500 $47,600 4.95 $2,356.20 $4,712.40
2012 $50,100 $3,500 $46,600 4.95 $2,306.70 $4,613.40
2011 $48,300 $3,500 $44,800 4.95 $2,217.60 $4,435.20
2010 $47,200 $3,500 $43,700 4.95 $2,163.15 $4,326.30
2009 $46,300 $3,500 $42,800 4.95 $2,118.60 $4,237.20
2008 $44,900 $3,500 $41,400 4.95 $2,049.30 $4,098.60
2007 $43,700 $3,500 $40,200 4.95 $1,989.90 $3,979.80
2006 $42,100 $3,500 $38,600 4.95 $1,910.70 $3,821.40
2005 $41,100 $3,500 $37,600 4.95 $1,861.20 $3,722.40
2004 $40,500 $3,500 $37,000 4.95 $1,831.50 $3,663.00
2003 $39,900 $3,500 $36,400 4.95 $1,801.80 $3,603.60
2002 $39,100 $3,500 $35,600 4.7 $1,673.20 $3,346.40
2001 $38,300 $3,500 $34,800 4.3 $1,496.40 $2,992.80
2000 $37,600 $3,500 $34,100 3.9 $1,329.90 $2,373.00
1999 $37,400 $3,500 $33,900 3.5 $1,186.50 $2,373.00
1998 $36,900 $3,500 $33,400 3.2 $1,068.80 $2,137.60

How to setup a Partnership in Ontario, Canada?


How to setup a Partnership in Ontario, Canada?

How to setup a Partnership in Ontario, Canada?

How to setup a Partnership in Ontario, Canada?

Much like a sole proprietorship, a partnership is not a separate legal entity. A partnership arises from the legal relationship between two or more people that join forces to start a business. The partners do not have limited liability from creditors and personal assets could be seized. This has given arise to several different partnership structures, including General Partnerships, Limited Partnerships, and Limited Liability Partnerships; each of which has a different level of personal liability.

How to setup a general Partnership? 

In a general partnership each partner is jointly and separately liable for the liabilities and obligations of the partnership. In this type of partnership, the partners do not have limited liability from creditors and personal assets could be at risk.

How to setup a Limited Partnership?

A limited partnership consists of a general and a limited partner. The limited partner has limited liability and only the initial investment is at risk to creditors. The general partner has unlimited liability.

How to setup a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)?

A LLP is created under The Partnerships Act which allows certain professionals to practice under a LLP. The legislation states that the partner is not personally liable for any liabilities of the partnership that arise as a result of negligence by other partners of the LLP.  The partners’ investment and the assets of the LLP can be at risk.

When setting up a partnership, do I need a partnership agreement?

Although a partnership agreement is not required by law, it’s a very good idea to have one in place. The partnership agreement would help avoid disputes among the partners in the future. The partnership agreement should include the following:

  • General governing rules regarding the partnership
  • How to add or remove partners
  • What happens in case of death of a partner
  • How to divide and distribute profits and losses

 How is a partnership taxed? 

A partnership is not a separate legal entity and does not file a separate tax return. The profits and losses flow directly to the partners, who report the income/losses on their personal tax return. A partnership could be required to file a T5013 Statement of Partnership Income depending on revenues and other criteria. A partnership calculates income and expenses in accordance with section 96(1) of the Income Tax Act which states that income and expenses have to be calculated at the partnership level.

A CRA business number for a partnership is not required. However, in certain circumstances you will be required to register a HST number. If you have employees you will be required to register a payroll number. All of which can be done over the phone by calling the CRA business line.


Contact our firm Cheema Chartered Professional Accountants for all your tax and accounting needs. We can help you minimize taxes and optimize profitability. We can help you setup the optimal structure for your partnership and help reduce future taxes. We are conveniently located in Mississauga and Brampton.

How to setup a Sole Proprietorship in Ontario, Canada?



 How to setup a Sole Proprietorship in Ontario, Canada?

Sole proprietorship, also known as a proprietorship or a sole business, is a type of business that is owned and operated by a single individual. Other individuals do not participate or own the business. This is the most simplest form of operating a business.

A sole proprietorship is simple to setup, you can operate the business under your personal name. If you desire to use an operating name you are able to register a Master Business License and operate under an operating name. The requirements for setting up a sole proprietorship are outlined in the provincial legislation.

The shortfall with a proprietorship is that the sole proprietor is personally liable for the business. There is no legal separation between the business and its owner. This creates unlimited liability from creditors and other business debts.

Key Features of a Sole Proprietorship:

  •  You can establish a sole proprietorship easily and instantly
  • Inexpensive to setup
  • Income and expenses reported on your personal tax return
  • You can mix business and personal assets

What are the setup cost?
The setup costs are relatively low. To Register a Master Business License online the government fee is $60. There are additional fees for name search and enhanced business name search.

How is a sole proprietorship taxed?
A proprietorship is not a separate legal entity and is taxed based on the proprietors personal income. A separate tax return is not required. The income or losses of the proprietorship will be taxed at the applicable marginal rate of the individual. If the business is profitable this may put you in a higher tax bracket.

There is no need to obtain a CRA business number for a sole proprietorship. However, in certain circumstances you will be required to register a HST number. If you have employees you will be required to register a payroll number. All of which can be done over the phone by calling the CRA business line.

The income and expenses from the sole proprietorship can be reported on your T1 Personal Income Tax return on the T2125 Statement of Business Activities form. You will be required to keep all your receipts for income tax purposes.


 Our accounting firm is located in Mississauga and Brampton

We have offices in Mississauga and Brampton. Contact our firm to setup a sole proprietorship. We can help you understand the tax and accounting obligations of s a sole proprietorship.

CRA Audit & Objections

CRA Audit & Objections

CRA Audit & Objections

  CRA Audit & Objections

Challenge the CRA / Dealing with the CRA? Here’s what you need to know.

Every year the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) audits thousands of small and medium size businesses and issues notices of reassessments.  Many times the result of these reassessments requires these businesses to pay up to thousands and sometimes millions in tax, interest and penalties.

Is there a chance that these CRA reassessments can be wrong? Yes! It is absolutely critical that business owners are prepared to challenge incorrect reassessments. Handling reassessments improperly can have serious financial implications for your business.

Here are five things that you should be aware of when you receive the CRA’s notices of reassessment:

  1. The CRA isn’t always right. Notices of reassessments and tax disputes are not necessarily an indication that the taxpayer, or the accountant, has done something wrong. If you feel the CRA has it wrong, as a taxpayer you have the right to challenge the CRA’s interpretation and application of the facts and law to ensure you are not paying more than you have to.
  2. Act on time. You must file a notice of objection to dispute a notice of reassessment. Generally, you must file a notice of objection within 90-days of the date that the CRA mailed the notice of reassessment. If you do not deliver a proper notice of objection within the 90-day period, you may apply for an extension of time to object. The CRA will consider applications for an extension of time to object if the application meets all relevant conditions and if it is filed within one year of the 90-day period. However, the CRA may deny your application for an extension of time and, therefore, it important to file a proper notice of objection within the 90-day period.
  3. The onus is on you. The normal reassessment period is three years for individual taxpayers and four years for corporate taxpayers. If the CRA issues a notice of (re)assessment within the normal reassessment period, the onus is on you to prove that the assessment is wrong in fact and law. You should be prepared to present factual and legal support for your position that the reassessment is wrong. If the CRA issues a notice of reassessment outside the normal reassessment period, taxpayers should understand the impact of this shift in the burden of proof. This is an opportunity to take advantage of the shift and make strategic decisions.
  4. Know what you are talking about. In addition to knowledge of the relevant legislation, the tax dispute process is governed by the case law, rules of procedure, the onus of proof, the standard of proof and the rules of evidence. In our experience, the party with the greater understanding of the legislation, case law and rules often has a significant advantage.
  5. Contact the right people for help.Clients often struggle to research and retain the right tax accountant and tax lawyer. We recommend that clients take the time to understand their options and speak to competent tax professionals.

This is an example where the CRA made a mistake and resulted in Mr. Irvin Leroux losing millions of dollars.

It was a million-dollar mistake that turned in to a 13-year battle. A British Columbia man lost almost everything in a tax battle with the Canada Revenue Agency. The CRA admits they were wrong, but now refuses to repay his money. His original documents were shredded by the CRA auditor.

The judge found that the auditors owed Mr. Leroux a duty of care and that they breached it in the manner in which they imposed penalties. However, the judge concluded that she was unable to find a causative link between that breach and Mr. Leroux’s losses.

Mr. Leroux had a legitimate position to put forward in saying that if the assessments had been done correctly in the first place, he might have been able to handle all the other problems he had.

The full case can be found here.

Contact our firm Cheema CPA Professional Corporation for all your CRA review and audit needs. Our team of tax accountants and lawyers can professionally handle your file.

Importance of Bookkeeping


 Importance of Bookkeeping

What is bookkeeping?

Bookkeeping is the process of recording all the financial transactions and events that occur in your business. Purchases, sales, receipts, and payments are all organized in chronological order and accurately recorded so that all the money that flows in and out of your business is accounted for. These records can be kept in designated books or in computer bookkeeping software.

Why is bookkeeping important?

Accurate bookkeeping is critical to the success of a business. It allows the business to see whether its earnings are enough to cover its expenses.  It provides guidance on the financial decisions.

Proper bookkeeping is also important for investing and financing activities. If the business is looking for bank financing, the bank will require financial records that support a healthy business. This type of financial data is achieved through organized and accurate bookkeeping.

Proper record keeping will also keep the CRA away. Discrepancies in your records will end up in faulty tax returns, which will send the CRA knocking at your door for an audit. Bookkeeping also assists with daily business management. By recording day-to-day financial details you can keep track of data, such as which customers owe you money and how much.

What are my options?

The most common software out there are Intuit QuickBooks or Sage Simply Accounting. Small business owners can do their own bookkeeping or use an accounting firm. Contact our firm for your small business needs. We can help you implement and maintain an accounting system.

Intuit QuickBooks has several different options at different price points. Visit the online store for more information.

Sage Simply Accounting also has multiple different options. Vist the online store for more information.

Contact Us

Contact Cheema CPA Professional Corporation for all your bookkeeping needs. We have bookkeepers who specialize in many different industries and can help you become more efficient.


Small Business Accountant Mississauga Brampton Oakville

Small Business Accountant

Small Business Accountant Mississauga Brampton Oakville


We help businesses in Mississauga, Brampton, and Oakville 

We live in an ever changing global economy where the dynamics of business have been revolutionized by the internet. Small business owners face many new risks in this economy. This is why hiring an accountant for your small business is no longer about finding someone good at number crunching. The services provided by an accountant have changed vastly over the last 50 years. Business owners need services which are much more enhanced and cumbersome from their accountants.

Our firm understands the needs of small business owners in Mississauga, Brampton, and Oakville and we look below the surface to find solutions to your problems. We go above and beyond providing tax services to our clients, we improve financial health, reduce risk, and help increase overall profitability. We use our expertise and  help our clients stay competitive and ahead of the competition.

Some common questions that we receive from our small business clients include:

1. Can we contact you through out the year? How often should we be in touch?

Each business is different and each business owner is different. The number of meetings required with your accountant will depends on a lot of factors. Some business require more accountant involvement because of the reporting requirements or the sensitivity of the business. A small business needs to have open and frequent communication with its accountant. With our clients we use an open door policy and have  frequent communications throughout the year. We like to connect with our clients on a monthly basis to make sure all the questions and concerns have been addressed. With constant contact with our clients it helps us understand the clients’ business better which in turn helps us put together better cost cutting techniques.

We understand how frustrating it can be getting a hold of your accountant when you really need them. This is why we respond to business owner inquiries in a timely fashion. We understand delayed responses will have a direct impact on the business. We respond to emails and phone calls within the hour. We provide business owners with a direct line and the phone is answered by an accountant directly.

2. Can you help me grow my business?

We work closely with our clients and help small business owners expand and grow their businesses over time. By working closely with our clients we put in the right foundation from day one. We present unique financial strategies to minimize expenses and increase overall margins. From the initial consultation we identify key areas and help our small businesses owners focus on these areas to help grow their business.

3. When the CRA audits my books, can you help me?

The Canada Revenue Agency conducts periodical review and audits. The process can be frustrating, expensive, and time consuming. Handling a CRA audit or review correctly requires a lot of detail and expertise.  We stand behind our work and directly represent our clients, we become the face of your business and directly deal with the CRA. We have an in house Tax Lawyer who assists us in handling any CRA audit or review. We fully represent our clients giving them peace of mind.

4. What are the biggest tax mistakes small business owners make?

Small business owners have multiple roles in a business which leaves very little time to focus on accounting and administrative duties. This time constraint leads to poor record keeping.  To asses how your business is doing from month to month, it is vital to keep good records, which helps determine efficiency and profitability. Thorough and accurate records also helps prepare accurate tax returns. It is common that legitimate expenses get ignored because the business owner never documented them property. This is why it is very important to work with a competent accountant who can help you keep a good set of books. We can help you organize your books and maintain good set of accounting and financial records. We help our clients implement good accounting tools and software to record income and expenses.

 Small Business Accountant Mississauga Brampton Oakville

We have helped business and business owners all over Mississauga, Brampton, and Oakville with accounting and tax related inquires. Contact our firm directly for your business needs.

Mississauga Accountant
Oakville Accountant
Brampton Accountant

Capital Gains vs Business Income


Capital Gain vs. Business Income

Capital Gains vs. Business Income

Capital Gains vs Business Income

As indicated in our previous articles, the housing market in Canada has attracted many investors. This has allowed real estate investors to make a quick profit. The popularity has also been fueled by the preferred tax treatment on capital gains. In Canada only 50% of the capital gain is taxable at your marginal tax rate.This has allowed taxpayers to shelter large portion of their income from the tax man. However, you should be aware that not all income qualifies as a capital gain. It could be taxed as business income, in which case 100% of the amount is subject to tax.

For example, to determine if the rental income qualifies as a capital gain or business income the following Six factors are considered as cited in Ayala v. The Queen:

  1. The nature of the property sold;
  2. The length of time the taxpayer was in possession as owner of the property;
  3. The frequency and number of operations carried out by the taxpayer;
  4. The improvements made by the taxpayer to the property;
  5. The circumstances surrounding the sale of the property; and
  6. The taxpayer’s intention at the time the property was acquired, as indicated by the taxpayer’s actions.

In the case of Montreal tax payer who sold six of her real estate properties and reported the income as a capital gain, her appeal was denied and income was assessed as business income. The judge in this case concluded that the Montreal taxpayer was probably and likely had acquired the properties “for the purpose of reselling them at a profit at the earliest opportunity rather than considering them as long‑term investments.” The taxpayers appeal was denied and her income assessed as business income forcing her to pay tax on 100% of the sale proceeds.

These rulings will impact many different business and industries. It is critical taxpayers seek adequate legal and tax advise when making decisions.

Capital Losses vs Business Losses 

When it comes to capital losses vs business losses the opposite is also true. A capital loss can only be applied to reduce a capital gain. However, a business loss has more flexibility and it can be applied to reduce a capital gain or other income. Read our article on capital losses vs business losses to gain more insight.

Cheema & Associate Professional Corporation – Chartered Professional Accountants  is an accounting firm located in Brampton, Ontario. Serving the needs of Small Business Owners & Entrepreneurs. Contact us for Tax Help, Personal Tax, Corporate Tax, Year End Financials, Accounting & Estate Taxes.